There are 3 separate problems when outputting images with custom sizes via the types shortcode (each resulting in the full sized image being output).
1. This has stopped working altogether in PHP 8
2. This may fail (server dependent) if the image filename contains non-Latin characters (e.g. Cyrillic characters)
3. Images in the webp format are not re-sized correctly
We identified the changes needed to fix each of these issues, but too late to include them in the recent Types 3.4.16 release.
The problems will be resolved in the next release of Types, but in the meantime a patch is available.
Download and unzip this file: https://toolset.com/patches/image.php.zip
Replace the file of the same name at wp-content/plugins/types/vendor/toolset/types/embedded/views/